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From prehistory to the present archeological evidences the cultural continuity is unbroken. At first European contact and the modern Caddoan Nation of Oklahoma is unquestioned today and that the direct ancestors of the Caddoan and related Caddoan language speakers in prehistoric times. The Caddoan Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes, who traditionally inhabited much of what is now East Texas, northern Louisiana and portions of southern Arkansas and Oklahoma

The Caddoan were farmers and enjoyed good growing conditions most of the time. However, the Piney Woods. By 1200 the many villages, hamlets, and farmsteads established throughout the Caddoan world had begun extensive maize agriculture. Their artistic skills and earthwork mound-building flourished during the 12th and 13th centuries. Spiro mounds, some of the most elaborate in the United States, were made by ancestors of the Caddoan and Wichita, the geographic area where they lived, was affected by the Great Drought, from 1276–1299 AD.